Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and factors associated with screening uptake in Kanjongo, Nyamasheke District, Rwanda


Eléazar Ndabarora
Védaste Ngirinshuti
Jean Claude Twahirwa
Dariya Mukamusoni
Fulgence Munyandamutsa
Joseph Rurabiyaka


The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sub-Saharan Africa was 13.7% in 2016 (Werfalli, Engel, Musekiwa, Kengne, & Levitt, 2016), which is higher than 8.7%, the global diabetes prevalence in 2015 (WHO, 2016). Fewer studies explored the factors associated with diabetes early detection for its prevention and control (WHO, 2016). Study objectives were: (1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the population attending the monthly community work in a selected sector, and (2) to identify the factors associated with diabetes screening and early detection. All 383 respondents who were attending the community monthly work were invited to be screened for diabetes and to be surveyed using an interview-guide questionnaire. Out of 383 respondents, 60.3% were female and 39.7% were male. The prevalence of diabetes was 8.6%, and only 27.9% have been tested before. The majority (95.3%) perceived regular testing beneficial, 62.4% perceived themselves susceptible to get diabetes, and 94.8% perceived diabetes as a serious disease. The sources of information were radio and television (89.6%), health care staff (79.4%), mass campaigns (73.1%), Community Health Workers (CHWs) (67.1%), and the neighbors (57.7%). Reported barriers to screening were lack of information (87.5%), delay of health insurance (79.1%), lack of readiness of the health care staff (75.7%), perceived quality of health care (52.2%) and the perceived cost (46.5%). The factors associated with the screening were the age (p=0.01), occupation (p<0.000), the perceived susceptibility (p˂ 0.000), the perceived threat (p=0.005), community sensitization by CHWs (p=0.003), mass campaign (p=0.001), and neighbors (p=0.009). Diabetes prevalence was lower than the Sub-Saharan prevalence estimates. Community sensitization through CHWs, mass campaigns and neighbors, information provision, disease perception, age, occupation, and quality of health care were the predictors of diabetes screening. Decentralized community sensitization and screening programs are highly recommended.